|Advances in Online Moisture Analysis for Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines|
Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fossil fuel, with global consumption expected to increase by 70% over the coming years, from around 4 trillion m3 in 2014 to around 7 trillion m3 by 2040. Typically gas processing costs are around 2.3 cents per m3 which, taken in isolation, doesn’t sound like much but when you factor in the huge amounts of gas being used it makes natural gas processing a €91 billion global industry now and potentially a €150 billion plus global industry in the future.
|Advances in Optical Techniques for Moisture and Hydrocarbon Detection|
Every year, the world uses in the region of 100 trillion scf (standard cubic feet) of natural gas. All of this gas requires treatment before it enters the pipeline, making natural gas processing a key global industry. Minimization of costs is achieved through optimization of these processes, requiring accurate online measurement of gas composition at multiple points in the chain. New proposed guidelines require the development of more sensitive detection limits. The field of optics already plays a large part in existing measurement technologies and further developments promise to provide improved techniques for use in natural gas analysis.
|Avoiding oxygen and moisture contamination in ultra-high purity gases for semi-conductor manufacture.|
As the miniaturisation of microprocessors continues and the pressure to avoid loss of yield increases, semi-conductor manufacturing techniques need to be more precise and demand sophisticated yet reliable control tools.
|Choosing the Correct Moisture Calibration System|
The following guide will help you to understand your moisture calibration requirements, as well as the options available, to help you correctly select an appropriate system.
|Control of moisture content within network injection quality bio-methane|
Bio-methane injection to natural gas networks is a rapidly growing sector within global energy industries, often in response to government energy policy initiatives. Bio-gas from anaerobic digestion contains up to 40% carbon dioxide and is saturated with water vapour. Gas quality specifications state strict limits for such impurities when processed into bio-methane for network injection.
|Field Verification of On-Line Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurements|
The Michell Condumax II applies a fundamental measurement principle for direct measurement of hydrocarbon dew point. Measurement performance is assured through comprehensive factory test and calibration, to verify that each analyzer offers accurate determination of the temperature at which hydrocarbon condensate forms. Further extensive examination confirms highly sensitive detection response to the fractional condensation characteristics of natural gas from within the onset of a measureable hydrocarbon dew point within the lowest region of condensate in gas density.
|Fundamentals of Moisture Calibration|
The following guide will provide you with a basic knowledge of humidity calibration, help you to understand your requirements and select an appropriate solution.
|Natural gas quality – ensuring efficiency and safety|
When natural gas is extracted, its composition varies depending on the source. Although the main component is methane (CH4), it will also contain contaminants such as moisture, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, oxygen, nitrogen and heavier hydrocarbon compounds. All of these need to be removed or reduced before the gas is accepted as transmission quality, and continual monitoring of levels of moisture and other contaminants is an important part of processing.